what language should my child learn

What Language Should My Child Learn?

The child is not a vessel that is filled, but a fire that is lit”. Montaigne

 

“What language should my child learn?” This is the recurring question for parents, when choosing the first or second foreign language for their child. The question is complex and the answer is difficult to give.  This type of choice depends on various individual and family criteria. Nevertheless, the following criteria will help you to make a wise choice.

1- Motivation and Success

The best foreign language to learn is the one your child will learn successfully. And motivation, as in any other subject,  is one of the most important factors when it comes to  successful language learning.

If your child learns a language because he or she knows that he or she will need it in the near  future (to feel comfortable on a foreign vacation or  to communicate in the country that you are moving to) or the distant future (to enter a specific school or to study abroad for a specific job), then his or her motivation to learn will be what is known as “extrinsic motivation”.

But there is another type of motivation that plays a major role in learning a language, and this is known as “intrinsic motivation”. Communicating with a friendly teacher, receiving positive feedback, experiencing joy and pleasure in conversation, and feeling the progress made in a new language are all learning engines.

It is important to note that no amount of books read or movies viewed in the target language can ever replace communication with a genuine, native interlocutor.

2- The importance of each language in the world

Of course, each language has its own substantial field of influence. The choice of a language can therefore be guided by its importance in the world. The top 3 most widely spoken languages ​​in the world are:

1- Mandarin, which is the most widely spoken language in the world today.  It has nearly 860 million native speakers and 450 million people who speak it as a second language.

2- English, which is the first official language of a hundred or more countries. Native English speakers total around 425 million, distributed across every continent. English is also one of the most influential languages because, apart from being an official language, it is also the “first second language” chosen by nearly 750 million people.

3- Spanish, with about 340 million native speakers.  In addition to Spain, Spanish is spoken in nearly 31 countries, most of which are in Latin America.

 

what language should my child learn

3- The difficulty of each language and its benefits

Some languages ​​are more difficult than others to master. For example, an English speaker will need an average of 2,200 hours, or 88 weeks of lessons to speak something of Japanese. The Chinese, the Arab and the Korean take about the same amount of time. Conversely, it is estimated that it takes 23 to 24 weeks, or 600 hours, for an English speaker to achieve the same level in Spanish or Italian.

But whatever language you learn, exercise is always excellent for the brain.  Learning Chinese, a non Indo-European language, with radically different language patterns has a very positive impact on a student’s comprehension of language in general, thus indirectly improving his or her  knowledge of other languages. This has been highlighted in a study published in 2016, in the journal Nature: the more languages ​​we learn and the younger we learn them, the better equipped we are to learn new languages.

So there’s no time to lose!  Let your kids start learning a new language today. They will be eternally grateful to you.

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Why Is Game-Based Learning So Effective?

A Chinese proverb says, “Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand.”

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The concept of game-based learning is not new. Plato asserted the importance of the role of play in children’s education, in his work, The Laws. In the fifteenth century, people were already teaching the alphabet and mathematics to children in attractive ways, using card games or counting biscuits. The use of games as a learning tool is a pivotal theme for child psychologists. In the early thirties Piaget formulated a serious of developmental stages in children’s play, which highlighted the importance of play in relation to children’s physical, social, emotional and cognitive development.

Today, all experts in the field of child development agree on the usefulness and effectiveness of learning through play. When children play, they discover, create, improvise and learn. According to Lev Vygotsky, games are the main source of children’s physical, social and cognitive development. Psychologist David Elkind, also asserts that games, while being source of creativity, are essentially a fundamental mode of learning.

Professionals everywhere, recognize that play and school work are not two separate categories; for children, creation, action and learning are inextricably linked.

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Motivation, social skills and knowledge structuring

According to Dr. Fraser Mustard, playing games increases intelligence, stimulates imagination, encourages creative problem solving and helps to develop confidence, self-esteem and a positive attitude to learning.

The virtues of educational games are indeed numerous: children develop the ability to relate to others, to negotiate, discuss, collaborate and share emotions and ideas. They bond and develop friendships, learn to work in teams and enjoy competing with one another. Competition between players enhances learners’ motivation.

Games also promote the structuring of knowledge; they allow the learner to build and organize patterns or representations in order to understand a concept or a situation. Thus, games improve and reinforce learning.

Games and language learning

How do games contribute to language learning?

Language experts recognize several advantages to using games in language courses:
• They help to break up the monotony of a course.
• They are motivating and challenging.
• They help to maintain effort.
• They offer the opportunity to practice oral and written skills, in the form of comprehension and expression.
• They encourage learners to interact and communicate.
• They create an interesting, authentic context for language use.

For games to be effective, teachers must take into account the number of learners, the level of language proficiency, the duration and theme of the lesson as well as the learners’ cultural background. Above all, teachers must adapt and tailor games to the specific learning situation.

At VivaLing, all of our coaches are trained to exploit the spectrum of digital resources available, in order to make the learning of English, Chinese, Spanish and French playful and interactive, and as a result, highly effective.

So what are you waiting for? Register your child at VivaLing now!

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6 Essential Back-to-School Tips

6 Essential Back-to-School Tips

That’s it- holiday time is over and the carefree days of summer have come to an end. For many, September is synonymous with stress and apprehension: children have to make new friends and meet new teachers while parents struggle to coordinate new routines, to manage a myriad of activities within the limitations of a timetable. VivaLing would like to help you to approach this time of the year with confidence and serenity, by offering you 6 tips.

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  •  Get everyone to bed on time.

During the summer, your child’s bedtimes are understandably variable. However, proper rest is essential for a healthy and productive school year. Help your kids get back on track sleep-wise, by having them go to bed earlier and wake up earlier at least a week in advance of the new school year.

  •  Get to know new teachers. 

There will be open days, orientation meetings, and other meet-and-greet options at the beginning of the school year, but none of these will give you the chance to spend some quality time getting to know your kids’ teachers. Try to find a few minutes before or after school to connect one-on-one with the teachers or at the very least, send an introductory email outlining how you can help during the year, in however big or small a capacity.

  •   Make homework a special moment.

 Within your child’s schedule, plan a daily slot for their homework. Set aside a quiet and comfortable place in the house where he can work, (a bedroom, a study etc.) and equip it with all the necessary study supplies: pen refills, paper, notebooks.  A special time and a special place for homework will help to ensure that your child remains motivated and works well throughout the year.

  •  Plan a daily reading time.

Reading is a key factor in academic success: it enriches your child’s spoken and written vocabulary. It develops your child’s imagination, stimulating creativity and enhancing his inner world. It is also a unique moment that allows you to explore possibilities and go on new adventures together. Try to spend 20 minutes reading with your child every day.  He will savour the pleasure of this intimacy even into adulthood.

  •  Encourage and motivate.

The beginning of every school year poses a new challenge for your child. Whatever the past results have been, let your child know that you support and believe in him throughout the months to come. Encourage your child to do his best, play down failures and remind him that he can always count on you for help.

  •  Choose the right activities.

Each child has different tastes and abilities. Take the time, early on, to sit down with your child and understand his needs and requests. Work out what can reasonably be fit into his schedule. Learning a new foreign language is one activity that will provide your child a tremendous asset in the future, both personally and professionally. VivaLing offers you the possibility of giving this wonderful gift to your child. Totally customized, interactive lessons with a qualified and experienced tutor provide the optimum conditions for a new language to flourish and your child doesn’t even have to leave the comfort of his home!

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Why Children Learn Better: Science Is Shedding Light

The man on the street has noticed it and science has confirmed it: children are more able to learn foreign languages and achieve high proficiency than adults. What are the reasons? All else being equal, neurology and psychology will provide us with the answers.

Neurological explanations address the state of the brain and its ability to carry out a given task at a certain stage of its development. Several hypotheses were explored as early as the 60ies. One dealt with brain maturation: the brain was thought to be like a slate of clay which, once carved with the mother tongue, could neither be erased nor re-written nor complemented by a foreign language. Another explanation, focusing on native language interference, claimed that once the mother tongue had been acquired, the learning mechanism itself was completely dismantled in order to reallocate neural tissues – a scarce resource – to other tasks. It is known today that some of these extreme explanations are wrong and others, incomplete and oversimplifying.

However, other age-related phenomena affecting foreign language learning are now much better known. The first one is the decrease of brain plasticity over time. Brain plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity, refers to the changes in neural pathways brought about by environmental or experiential stimuli. Each new learning (be it knowledge or skill) triggers new brain circuitry creation so as to transfer and process the information. Conversely, unused connections are disposed of in order to optimize the brain functioning and performance. At birth, each neuron (and there are about 100 billion of them) has 2500 synapses enabling neural connections. At age 2-3, the number of synapses per neuron increases to … 15000, that is to say twice the average adult number. In fact, by neural pruning, synaptic density progressively decreases from mid-childhood and teenagehood onwards, at a pace specific to each brain area. In addition, myelination (the sheathing of axons) reinforces the effectiveness of existing neural connections but is detrimental to the brain’s flexibility to set up new neural pathways. Specialization of brain areas to specific and precise functions carries on. Neuroplasticity inexorably decreases with brain maturation. Processes like language learning enjoy a privileged window of opportunity after basic sensory functions and before higher cognitive functions.

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Based on brain plasticity, learning goes through successive sensitive periods focused on: senses during early childhood, language and motor functions during childhood, and later higher cognitive functions (maths, critical thinking, etc…) (credit : adapted from Hensch, 2005, Nature Reviews Neuroscience)

 

David Birdsong, one of the current leading researchers on effects of age of acquisition, identifies other sources as well. Firstly, the widespread decline of cognitive capabilities with age is a regular phenomenon that does not spare language learning. Secondly, interference of the native tongue probably increases with age – age being a proxy of usage of this language. Last, according to psycho-linguists, Chomsky’s Language Acquisition Device –giving access to Universal Grammar –, or any other language-specific acquisition mechanism, seems to disappear with age.

Socio-psychological reasons are completely different in nature but no less significant. Children do not feel embarrassed by novelty, since everything is new and consequently nothing is really abnormal. New sounds, even when very different from the mother tongue’s, are not frightening. Children utter them convincingly whereas adults might hesitate to stress them as strongly – they are so “weird”! More importantly still, children will not shy away from trying even if not completely sure, from having a go even if they are mistaken and must start again. Besides, other children will not be critical of the mistakes, at least not in the same proportions. As for adults, they might fear that their social status – which comes across so naturally in their mother tongue – could be degraded by an incomplete command of the other language. To make a long story short, social self-awareness sometimes plays against language learning by adults.

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Regardless of the quality of the learning environment – this topic will be addressed at a later stage –, children are more able to learn foreign languages  than adults  because of neurological and socio-psychological reasons. This is why one should make the most of sensitive period of childhood – it is so favourable !

Double-pendulum-trajectory-credit-Georgia-Ahimsa-Williams

Chaos inside My Child’s Second Language – Should I Worry ?

Have you ever felt disconcerted by the unpredictable and chaotic progress of your child’s second language acquisition ? Dazzling progress seems to be followed by periods of slower growth, sometimes even laborious, not to mention times of regression. She seemed to master this notion, and all of a sudden she stumbles where she never would have in the past. Why does he now treat this irregular verb as a regular one ? And why does she no longer pick up any of these expressions that were so obvious to her previously ? But there are more twists to the story : soon afterwards, he will surprise you by unexpected expressions that will amaze you again.

Second language acquisition is as chaotic as, for example, the weather. Do you remember the butterfly imagined by Lorenz which modified the weather in Dallas by flapping its wings in Tokyo ? A seemingly trivial and barely perceptible action could have considerable consequences in a totally unpredictable fashion and far from where it originated. Even the simplest of complex systems, the double pendulum (or pendulum with two degrees of freedom) behaves in a way which is extremely hard to anticipate. Not that proper equations do not exist, but the system is so sensitive that any dynamic forecast becomes impossible. Look at the movement of the red ball of the double pendulum variant shown below when the main pendulum is made to swing. Forecasting its trajectory is just impossible.

 

Language learning is itself a complex process. It is remarkably well described by the Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) that was first introduced to linguistics less than twenty years ago. Second language acquisition depends indeed on a large number of cognitive and social variables : quantity of language input and output, feedback, the learner’s intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, the learner’s interactions with individuals, groups, or surrounding society, the learner’s first and second language knowledge, learning history and duration … and the list continues. These variables are not only numerous but also interconnected through rich and complex dynamics.

Learning is highly non-linear : the effects are not proportional to the forces applied. Consider now hiking as a metaphor for a linguistic journey. During the hike milestones will be crossed and left behind one after the other. As for language learning outcomes, they are not a nice orderly series of elements mastered one after the other. They are a dynamic set, the components of which sometimes overlap, scattered over a large “learning” surface area filled with pitfalls hard to avoid and overcome, or mountains hard to climb. Each new learning stage is the result of combined variables and influences applied to the previous stage. Lastly, the learning journey is closely linked to the child’s neurological, physiological and psychological starting point.

Are you now convinced ? The fine path of Second Language Acquisition is by and large unpredictable. In the case of children, however, the end state is statistically more likely to be a good command of the language. Chaos by itself is therefore not to be feared, but tamed. The key point to remember for the educator, as is well known, is to customize the teaching to the largest extent possible to the learner, their history, their present state ; to react with the utmost attention to each development and to guide them towards their ultimate objective. The main take away for the learner and their family is, once the right educator is found, to never get discouraged and conversely to always persevere. This is what you are already doing, isn’t it ? This will lead your child from chaos to actual learning, from struggle to success.

 

For more details :

De Bot, K., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism : Language and Cognition, 10(1), 2007, 7-21.

 

 

Portrait of smart schoolgirls and schoolboys looking at the laptop in classroom

Will your child forget a language learnt in his early childhood?

Portrait of smart schoolgirls and schoolboys looking at the laptop in classroom

What will be left? This is the recurring – and a little anxious – question being asked by parents about the languages learned by their children during infancy or early childhood, especially when these languages are not practiced thereafter.

We already wrote a blog post on this topic that many of you read. The conclusion, based on a study of C. Landing from 2003, seemed clear: a language learned in childhood can be forgotten as quickly as it is learned if it is not used or at least kept after puberty.

And yet, the fine interpretation of the results of this study has been questioned by many other publications. At the end of 2014, J. Pierce of McGill University in Canada demonstrated for the first time that the neural representation of a language acquired in early childhood was firmly rooted in the brain, even if the subject had no conscious memory of that language after having no exposure at all for a long time.

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The demonstration was made with Chinese orphans adopted at the age of 13 months by French families, and completely cut off from their original language. 12 years later, although they had no conscious memory of their language, their brains responded to the tonal system of the Chinese language just as Chinese native speakers. Indeed, while listening to phonemes pronounced with different tones, their brain was using language centres located in the left hemisphere. In comparison, a control group of French children was using acoustic processing functions able to analyse non-linguistic complex signals in the right hemisphere of their brain.

Is having a brain that seems to keep memories of a past language of which the subject has no conscious recollection really useful? Yes, as Leher Singh from the National University of Singapore wrote in 2011. She was also interested in orphans, this time from the Indian subcontinent, adopted in their infancy by American families and completely cut off from their original language. Indian languages contain phonetic contrasts on “t” and “d” that are imperceptible to the ears of Americans. Many years after their change of continent, these little adopted children didn’t seem to be able to perceive these contrasts. At least initially. However, after one month of exposure, the adopted children had made considerable progress in the discrimination of these sounds, in comparison to a control group of young Americans.

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So here is what science teaches us to date:
• around the age of one year, the infant’s brain loses forever the ability to discriminate sounds (consonants, vowels, tones) absent from its own language or its linguistic environment. To perceive contrasts from other languages, a child must be exposed to them during this critical “Phonetic period,” around the age of one year.
• Not being exposed to the language of origin does not mean that this language will be completely forgotten. Its traces remain unconscious, neurologically, which significantly facilitate the learning.

Consequently, one should not hesitate to expose his child to one or more target languages while still a baby, even if these languages are not used immediately or intended to be relearned later. This is an investment that can be made only at this critical period of life. Almost all parents ignore that. Not you.

For more information:

Lara J. Pierce, Denise Klein, Jen-Kai Chenc, Audrey Delcenseried, Geneseea and Fred (2015). Mapping the unconscious maintenance of a lost first language. PNAS, 112, February 2015.

Leher Singh, Jacqueline Liederman, Mierzejewski Robyn and Jonathan Barnes (2011). Rapid reacquisition of native phoneme contrasts after-disuse: you do not always lose what you do not use. Journal of Developmental Science. 14(5), 949-959.

Pallier C, et al. (2003). Brain imaging of language plasticity in adopted adults: Can a second language replace the first? Cereb Cortex 13 (2), 155-161.

Schoolgirl researching online

7 Tips to Help Your Child Learn a New Language

Here are some tips to encourage and support your child in his learning journey. And you’ll see, you can do a lot to help!

Schoolgirl researching online

1- Show interest in your child’s Language learning experiences and encourage him or her to share them with you

2- Encourage your child to learn through meaningful language games

3- Read newspapers and books together, starting with books with attractive illustrations

4- Bring your child to the library or bookshops to cultivate a reading habit

5- Watch quality television programmes in the target language together

6- Make use of objects in your environment such as road signs and advertisements to engage your child in conversations in the target language

7-Build up your child’s confidence by not correcting his or her mistakes excessively

 

* Tips from “The new Chinese language curriculum for primary schools” by Singaporean MOE

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Your Child’s Journey with VivaLing

Start early, learn well, don’t forget : these are the very simple stages of your child’s Journey with VivaLing. Find out more below about the theoretical framework developed by VivaLing and how it is implemented in order to achieve results. You can also read the related posts throughout our VivaLing blog.

 

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VivaLing - SLA Learning drivers for children

3 Key Drivers of Second Language Acquisition for Children

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Take a child at any given stage of development. All else equal, three key drivers will determine the effectiveness of the child’s foreign language acquisition: quantity of language activities, motivation, and social interaction.

What is summarized here as language activities covers in fact several concepts, distinct but complementary, perfectly well introduced by Shumei Zhang (2009) of Dongguan University. These concepts are : input, output and feedback. Input describes the amount of target language that the learner is exposed to and that is processed by their brain. Input is indispensable, but not sufficient by itself. Feedback (sometimes called interaction) is necessary for the learner to grow aware of their mistakes and correct them. Last, output, or language produced by the learner, enables them, amongst others, to test their target language hypotheses and develop automaticity in language production. Our brain being “a supercomputer (…) equipped with powerful and rigorous statistical inference mechanisms”, as Stanislas Dehaene (2013), Professor at the College de France, puts it, input, feedback and output will be all the more effective as they come in large quantity and at the required level of quality.

It is thus necessary to speak abundantly to the child in the target language, if possible regularly, and with the right language level (that is to say without mistakes, in a way that is clear enough to be understood and sophisticated enough for the child to progress). The child must be strongly encouraged to speak in the target language, even if they have to take a leap of faith without any guarantee of success. Finally, one should not refrain from providing feedback to the child in case of mistake: it is not blaming or scolding but genuinely a necessary stage in the learning process.

 

L’input est indispensable à l’apprentissage de langue … mais pas suffisant

Input is indispensable for second language acquisition – but not sufficient by itself

Rebecca Oxford (1994), with the University of Alabama, mentions it: “research shows that motivation directly influences how often students use L2learning strategies, how much students interact with native speakers, how much input they receive in the language being learned (the target language), how well they do on curriculum-related achievement tests, how high their general proficiency level becomes, and how long they persevere and maintain L2 skills after language study is over”. Indeed, motivation is one of the most powerful language learning drivers. Motivation can make up for certain aptitude or quantity deficiencies; conversely, without motivation no learning can take place.

Typically, children will want to learn a language to integrate in their environment and have friends, or to succeed at exams; their motivation will be intrinsic, out of interest for the language or for the sake of achievement, or extrinsic, when driven with more or less success by their environment. Teachers play a pivotal role in their students’ motivation. Motivation also implies lack of demotivating factors. Parents, for instance, should not convey their own concerns towards a language that they think is too difficult; society should not make negative judgements on a language that is deemed inappropriate for one reason or the other.

 

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Motivation, a key driver for language learning, varies in nature and intensity from one individual to the other (credit termcoord.eu)

Social interaction is the third learning driver. There is a partial overlap with the previous two drivers: feedback is often given through a social interaction (and not by a machine), and motivation very often comes from someone’s positive action. But the phenomenon is much farther reaching. At the iLabs center at the University of Washington, Sarah Roseberry (2011) studied the linguistic learning of a group of 42 children aged below 3, in various experimental settings: first with an adult attending in person, then with an adult attending virtually through a Skype-like remote connection, last with an adult in a pre-recorded video.

The outcome is unambiguous: live adults, whether present in person or through an online connection, enable a similar level of learning whereas the pre-recorded video is much less impactful. Therefore, one can strongly question the pedagogical effectiveness, at least for infants and toddlers, of pre-recorded child programs, even when the main character asks a question and pretends to be waiting for the answer. The fact is that children are not fooled. For actual learning they need real social interaction wherein the other person effectively follows their gaze, reacts to their facial expressions and change of attitude, pausing or resuming, in a word to their behavioural and learning dynamics.

 

Les personnages de certains dessins animés populaires ne dupent pas les enfants, même lorsqu’ils posent une question et font semblant d’attendre une réponse

The characters of some popular cartoons do not fool children, even when they ask a question and pretend to be waiting for an answer.

For your child’s second language acquisition, make sure not to disregard any of the powerful learning drivers discussed above: quantity of language activities, motivation and social interaction.

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5 Myths about Your Child Learning Another Language

One day you will probably have to decide whether or not to encourage your child to learn another language. Here are 5 myths you need to dispel first.

  • Myth 1 : Most children are monolingual, so why bother ?

Well, no. More than half of the world population actually grows up speaking more than one language. To start with, quite a few countries are officially multilingual (for example, Singapore), and many others are functionally multilingual. In China, while Mandarin is the lingua franca, hundreds of millions speak other regional languages such as Shanghaiese, Cantonese or Hokkien. In India most people speak one or both of the national languages (English and Hindi), one official regional language (there are 22 of them), and a local or family language. Even in Europe more and more children grow up with several languages, so much so that multilinguals now represent 54% of the population.

  • Myth 2 : Leave the kids alone, they will learn when they grow up.

You wish. Unfortunately it does not work that way. True, adults can progress much quicker at the beginning thanks to their advanced analytical skills and their life-long acquired knowledge. But very soon they hit a wall. And how far that wall is varies greatly from one individual to another. Conversely, children might start slowly, but they – and only they – will eventually overcome pronunciation and proficiency issues. So keep this general rule in mind : age of acquisition is a very good predictor of ultimate nativelikeness. The younger, the better. Childhood is indeed a sensitive period when it comes to languages. Oh and by the way, learning too can be great fun for them.

  • Myth 3 : Multilingual kids are late in their language development.

Wrong. Children growing with two or more languages have by and large no delay in language development. Of course, their vocabulary knowledge in any of the two languages may often be smaller than that of a monolingual child ; but when taken together, the lexicons in both languages are at least of the same size as a monolingual child’s. There are also positive interferences, for instance metalinguistic knowledge acquired through one language and transferred to the other.

  • Myth 4 : Multilingual kids confuse their different languages

No they don’t. In fact, right from birth, infants can discriminate between different languages. What does indeed happen is that children speaking different languages may often mix them in a conversation (as in combine them or use them concurrently) – but it is no confusion. This is called code-switching. Why would they do so ? Usually because the right word comes first to their mind in the other language (and maybe they do not even know it in the first language). This happens only when they are aware that the person they are talking to also understands that language. In conversations with monolinguals or when required not to code-switch, multilingual children will stick to one language.

  • Myth 5 : There are no worthwhile advantages to learning other languages

Really ? Incredibly, someone recently claimed to have calculated the return on investment of language learning by studying people’s salaries, and concluded that one should only learn English, if anything. But there is so much more to multilingualism than a higher salary. Being truly successful at school or at work, grasping the most subtle details. Opening up to other people and cultures, and speaking to their heart rather than to their brain. Reaping non-linguistic cognitive benefits, for instance, a higher ability to process conflicting information. And even, as recently discovered, delaying the onset of old-age related diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

Convinced ? Let us know !